The defendants hijacked a plane in order to escape death at the hands of the Iraqi authorities. In Scots criminal law, the defence is known too. 42. There was some doubt as to how long the weapon had been in his possession, which resulted in his conviction because the jury decided that he had not acted as soon as was reasonable in the circumstances. In R v Singh, the Court of Appeal held that a threat to expose the defendant's adultery would not be sufficient threat to overbear the will of an ordinary person. This is an exception to the general principle of criminal law that those who choose to break the law are held responsible for the crimes that they commit.
In Barton v Armstrong Mr Armstrong tried to "strong-arm" Mr Barton into paying him a large golden parachute to exit a business by getting his goons to make death threats to Barton's family. Simon Brown J. defined the defence as pressure on the accused's will arising either from the wrongful threats or violence of another, or from other objective dangers threatening the accused or others. Thus, if the defendant knows what the group does and that some violent people are involved, he or she cannot rely on the violence threatened as duress. However, contrasting to cases involving business parties, the threat to do a lawful act will probably be duress if used against a vulnerable person. The defendant must have a reasonable and genuinely held fear of death or serious harm, usually in the form of specific threats directed at the defendant, his immediate family or someone for whom he feels responsible. When a claim of duressis filed, it is because a party wants to prove that their agreement t…  This would seem to apply to the defence of duress, and in R v Tyrell and others 2004 EWCA Crim 3279, there had been a specific, although late, reliance upon the defence. The doctrine arises not only in criminal law but also in civil law, where it is relevant to contract law and trusts law. His passenger had recently been attacked by a man with a shotgun, and screamed at the defendant to "drive off" when he saw the plain-clothed officers running toward the car. A Ashworth, 'Commentary on R v Safi'  Criminal Law Review 721. As seen in R v Cole 1994 Crim. R. 335 this was slightly modified at p344: "What a defendant has to be aware of is the risk that the group might try to coerce him into committing criminal offences of the type for which he is being tried by the use of violence or threats of violence."
Rather he is adopting the understandable but morally dubious principle that the end justifies the means. , An obvious case involving "lawful act duress" is blackmail.
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